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ASQUARE is one of the best medical classes in Pune for the preparation of NEET-UG, AIIMS, AIPMT

Medical specialties can be classified along several axes these are:

  • Surgical or internal medicine
  • Age range of patients
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic
  • Organ-based or technique-based
  • Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are the specialties in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques.
  • The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, Anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

  • Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

  • The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Pediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several sub-specialties (formally or informally) in pediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults.

  • Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

  • A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology.

  • This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.


SPECIALITY Can be subspecialty of Diagnostic (D) or therapeutic (T) specialty Surgical (S) or internal medicine specialty (I) Age range of patients Organ-based (O) or technique-based (T)
Adolescent medicine Paediatrics Both I Paediatric T
Aerospace medicine None Both Neither All Both
Allergy and immunology Paediatrics or Internal medicine Both I All O
Anaesthesiology None T Unknown All Both
Cardiology Internal medicine T I Adults O
Cardiothoracic surgery General surgery T S Adults O
Child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy Psychiatry T I Paediatric T
Clinical neurophysiology Neurology D I All Both
Colon and Rectal Surgery General Surgery Both S All O
Dermatology-Venereology None T I All O
Emergency medicine Anaesthetics Both I All Both
Endocrinology Internal medicine T I Adults O
Gastroenterology Internal medicine T I Adults O
General practice None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary
General surgery None T S Adults T
Geriatrics Internal medicine or family medicine T I Geriatric Multidisciplinary
Health informatics None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary
Hospice and palliative medicine Various Both Neither All Neither
Infectious disease Pediatrics or Internal medicine Both I All Neither
Internal medicine None T I Adults Neither
Interventional radiology Radiology Both Unknown All Multidisciplinary
Microbiology None D I All T
Neonatology Paediatrics T I Neonatal Neither
Nephrology Internal medicine T I All O
Neurology Internal medicine T I All O
Neuroradiology Radiology Both I All Both
Neurosurgery Surgery T S All O
Nuclear medicine None Both I All T
Obstetrics and gynaecology None T S All O
Occupational medicine None T I Adults Multidisciplinary
Ophthalmology None T S All O
Oral and maxillofacial surgery Surgery T S All O
Orthodontics None T S All O
Orthopaedics General surgery T S All O
Otorhinolaryngology None T S All O
Paediatric allergology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric cardiology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric haematology and oncology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric infectious diseases Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric nephrology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric respiratory medicine Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric rheumatology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O
Paediatric surgery General Surgery T S Paediatric O
Paediatrics None T I Paediatric Neither
Pathology None D Neither All T
Physical medicine and rehabilitation None T I All Multidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgery T S All O
Psychiatry Internal medicine T I All T
Public Health None Neither Neither All T
Pulmonology Internal medicine T I Adults O
Radiation Oncology None T Neither All T
Radiology None Both I All T
Sports medicine Family medicine Both Neither All Multidisciplinary
Urology General surgery T S All O
Vascular medicine Internal medicine T I Adults O
Vascular surgery General surgery T S All O

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area

The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area. Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example “Clinical radiology” and “Radiology” refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

  • Accident and emergency medicine
  • Allergology
  • Anaesthetics
  • Biological hematology
  • Cardiology
  • Child psychiatry
  • Clinical biology
  • Clinical chemistry
  • Clinical neurophysiology
  • Craniofacial surgery
  • Dental, oral and maxillo-facial surgery
  • Dermato-venerology
  • Dermatology
  • Endocrinology
  • Gastro-enterologic surgery
  • Gastroenterology
  • General hematology
  • General Practice
  • General surgery
  • Geriatrics
  • Immunology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Internal medicine
  • Laboratory medicine
  • Maxillo-facial surgery
  • Microbiology
  • Nephrology
  • Neuro-psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Obstetrics and gynecology
  • Occupational medicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Paediatric surgery
  • Paediatrics
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • Plastic surgery
  • Podiatric Surgery
  • Psychiatry
  • Public health and Preventive Medicine
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Radiology
  • Respiratory medicine
  • Rheumatology
  • Stomatology
  • Thoracic surgery
  • Tropical medicine
  • Urology
  • Vascular surgery

Specialist of North American medical specialties and others

  • Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease.
  • Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease.
  • Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.
Specialty Code Group Sub-specialties Focus
Allergy and immunology Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system
Anesthesiology AN, PAN Surgery Pediatric anesthesia Pain management Intensive care Critical care Obstetrics and gynaecology Cardiothoracic anesthesiology Trauma care Pre- and Post-Operative Assessment and Care Generalist (covers all the sub-specialties) Anesthesia
Cardiology Medicine Disease of the cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular surgery Surgery The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
Clinical laboratory sciences Diagnostic Transfusion medicine is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood component, including the maintenance of a blood bank”.Cellular pathology is concerned with diagnosis using samples from patients taken as tissues and cells using histology and cytology Clinical chemistryis concerned with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids, and tissues.Hematology is concerned with diagnosis by looking at changes in the cellular composition of the blood and bone marrow as well as the coagulation system in the blood.Clinical microbiology is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses,fungi and parasites
Clinical immunologyis concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis ofallergy.
Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays microscope analysis.
Dermatology D, DS Medicine Dermatology, Mohs surgery Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glandsetc.).
Dietetics RD Food and nutrition
Emergency medicine EM Medicine · Disaster medicine

· Emergency medical services

· Hospice and palliative medicine

· International Emergency Medicine and Global Health

· Medical toxicology

· Pediatric emergency medicine

· Research

· Simulation

· Sports medicine

· Toxicology

· Ultrasound

· Undersea and hyperbaric medicine

· Wilderness medicine

The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital

Emergency departments or the field.

Endocrinology Medicine The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Family medicine FM Medicine · Adolescent medicine

· Geriatric medicine

· Hospice and palliative medicine

· Sleep medicine

· Sports medicine

Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.
Forensic medicine Medicine
Gastroenterology GI Medicine The alimentary tract
General surgery GS Surgery · Colorectal surgery

· Gastrointestinal surgery

· Transplant surgery

· Trauma surgery

Geriatrics IMG Medicine Elderly patients
Gynecology Female reproductive health
Hepatology Medicine The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Hospital medicine Medicine
Infectious disease ID Medicine Diseases caused by biological agents
Intensive care medicine Medicine Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Medical research Anatomy, Biochemistry Embryology Genetics Pharmacology Toxicology Care of hospitalized patients
Nephrology Medicine Kidney diseases
Neurology N Medicine Behavioral neurology Clinical neurophysiology

Geriatric neurology Headache medicine

· Neuromuscular medicine

· Neurodevelopmental disabilities

· Neuro-oncology

· Neuroradiology

· Vascular neurology

· Hospice and palliative medicine Pain medicine Sleep medicine

Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems
Neurosurgery NS Surgery · Cerebrovascular

· Neurosurgical oncology

· Stereotactic and functional

· Spine<

· Neurotrauma Skull basePeripheral nervePediatric neurosurgery

Disease of the central nervous system peripheral nervous system, andspinal column.
Obstetrics and gynecology OB/GYN Surgery ·Maternal-fetal medicine

·Reproductive medicine

·Fertility medicine

·Gynecologic oncology

Oncology ON Medicine ·Radiation oncology– pertains to the use of radiation therapy(the medical use of ionizing radiation) as part of cancertreatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology). Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
Ophthalmology OPH Surgery Retina, Cornea Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery Maxfacs, OMS Surgery · Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck)

· Facial cosmetic surgery

· Craniomaxillofacial trauma

Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Orthopedic surgery ORS Surgery Hand surgery,surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology, or ENT ORL, ENT Surgery Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, Laryngology Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
Palliative care PLM Medicine A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
Pathology PTH Diagnostic Understanding disease through examination of molecules cells tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.
Pediatrics PD Medicine Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology>pediatric emergency medicinepediatric endocrinology pediatric gastroenterology pediatric hematology pediatric oncology,pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology. deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).
Pediatric surgery Surgery Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal(and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or Physiatry PM&R Medicine Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
Plastic surgery PS Surgery · Cosmetic surgery

· Burn

· Microsurgery

· Hand surgery

· Craniofacial surgery

Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.
Podiatry POD Surgery · Forefoot surgery

· Midfoot surgery

· Rearfoot surgery

· Ankle surgery

· Soft tissue leg surgery

Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.
Proctology PRO Medicine (or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum,anus, and colon.
Psychiatry P Medicine ·Child and adolescent psychiatry focuses on the care of children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and learning problems including ADHD autism, and family conflicts.Geriatric psychiatryfocuses on the care of elderly [1]people with mental illnesses includingdementias, post-stroke cognitive changes, and depression.Addiction psychiatry focuses on substance abuse and its treatment.Forensic psychiatry focuses on the interface of psychiatry and law.europsychiatry focuses on affective, cognitive and behavioral disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous systemSleep medicine focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.Psychosomatic medicine Hospice and Palliative Medicine Pain medicine. The bio-psycho-social study of theetiology,diagnosis,treatment and prevention of cognitive,perceptual emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
Pulmonology Medicine The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Radiology R, DR Diagnostic and Therapeutic ·Interventional radiology is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances for invivo and invitrodiagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances. The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.
Rheumatology RHU Medicine Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Stomatology Dentistry Diseases of the mouth
Surgical oncology SO Surgery Curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.
Thoracic surgery TS Surgery Surgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.
Transplant surgery TTS Surgery Transplantation of organs from one body to another
Urgent Care Medicine UCM Medicine Immediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury
Urology U Surgery Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology (“men’s health”).
Vascular surgery VS Surgery The peripheral blood vessels – those outside of the chest(usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside of the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)

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